Arthur Koestler (1905–1983) was a Hungarian-British author and journalist. Koestler was born in Budapest and, apart from his early school years, was educated in Austria. In 1931 Koestler joined the Communist Party of Germany until, disillusioned by Stalinism, he resigned in 1938. A few years later, he published his novel Darkness at Noon, an anti-totalitarian work, which gained him international fame. Over the next forty-three years from his residence in Great Britain, Koestler espoused many political causes and wrote novels, memoirs, biographies, and essays. He was awarded the Sonning Prize for outstanding contribution to European culture and was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire.