ALFRED ADLER (1870-1937), pioneer Austrian psychiatrist, was born in Vienna. He first practiced as an ophthalmologist, later turning to mental disease. He became a prominent member of the psychoanalytical group formed around Sigmund Freud. In 1911, he broke away from the group with his formulation of his ‘Individual Psychology’—a consideration of each person’s psychology as different from others—which he developed in his Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology. His main contributions to psychology include the ‘inferiority complex’, and his treatment of neurosis as the ‘exploitation of shock’.
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