Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BC), commonly known as Cicero, was a Roman statesman, philosopher, orator, and lawyer. Born into an aristocratic family, he studied law and served a term as consul in 63 BC. As a member of the Senate, he witnessed the rise to prominence of Julius Caesar, whose followers forced him into exile and out of politics. Following the assassination of Caesar in 44 BC, to which he was a witness, he argued in front of the Senate for the restoration of the republic, but was unsuccessful. In 43 BC, he was murdered on the orders of Mark Antony. Cicero’s works include philosophic writings, speeches made as a lawyer and a senator, and letters. His best-known writings include On the Orator, On the Republic, Hortensius, On the Nature of the Gods, On Duties, and Treatises on Friendship and Old Age.