the dark days between Hitler’s invasion of Poland in September 1939 and Japan’s
attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt sent five
remarkable men on dramatic and dangerous missions to Europe. The missions were
highly unorthodox and they confounded and infuriated diplomats on both sides of
the Atlantic. Their importance is little understood to this day. In fact, they
were crucial to the course of the Second World War.
envoys were magnificent, unforgettable characters. First off the mark was
Sumner Welles, the chilly, patrician under secretary of state, later ruined by
his sexual misdemeanors, who was dispatched by FDR on a tour of European
capitals in the spring of 1940. In summer of that year, after the fall of
France, William “Wild Bill” Donovan, war hero and future spymaster, visited a
lonely United Kingdom at the president’s behest to determine whether she could
hold out against the Nazis. Donovan’s report helped convince FDR that Britain was
he won an unprecedented third term in November 1940, Roosevelt threw a lifeline
to the United Kingdom in the form of Lend-Lease and dispatched three men to
help secure it. Harry Hopkins, the frail social worker and presidential confidant,
was sent to explain Lend-Lease to Winston Churchill. Averell Harriman, a
handsome, ambitious railroad heir, served as FDR’s man in London, expediting
Lend-Lease aid and romancing Churchill’s daughter-in-law. Roosevelt even put to
work his rumpled, charismatic opponent in the 1940 presidential election,
Wendell Willkie, whose visit lifted British morale and won wary Americans over
to the cause. Finally, in the aftermath of Germany’s invasion of the Soviet
Union, Hopkins returned to London to confer with Churchill and traveled to
Moscow to meet with Joseph Stalin. This final mission gave Roosevelt the
confidence to bet on the Soviet Union.
envoys’ missions took them into the middle of the war and exposed them to the
leading figures of the age. Taken together, they plot the arc of America’s
transformation from a divided and hesitant middle power into the global leader.
At the center of everything, of course, was FDR himself, who moved his envoys
around the globe with skill and élan.
often think of Harry S. Truman, George Marshall, Dean Acheson, and George F.
Kennan as the authors of America’s global primacy in the second half of the
twentieth century. But all their achievements were enabled by the earlier work
of Roosevelt and his representatives, who took the United States into the war
and, by defeating domestic isolationists and foreign enemies, into the world.
In these two years, America turned. FDR and his envoys were responsible for the
turn. Drawing on vast archival research, Rendezvous with Destiny is
narrative history at its most delightful, stirring, and important. Download and start listening now!